# Environmental Data Analysis and Visualization

## Warm-up exercise

On Canvas, there is a link to a survey for the **ENVS Society**. Please take a few moments to fill this out.

## Visualization Critique

## Some things I heard last night

- Is it OK if I don’t have a significant relationship?
- Do I need to revise my project if I can’t answer my question with the data?
**What if my results don’t show anything exciting/interesting?**

## Science fails all the time

## Science fails all the time.

## Science fails all the time.

And that’s OK.

## Does this mean I asked a bad question?

## Does this mean I asked a bad question?

No.

## Does this mean I asked a bad question?

No. Developing research questions takes time and practice. But they should *never* be asked with the *expressed aim* of getting a “significant” result.

## Fail productively

A negative result is a result nonetheless.

If your assumptions/predictions didn’t work out, ask why not.

If your results are inconclusive, ask what data might be needed.

How does your result compare with other studies?

## Fail productively, fail gloriously

“To fail productively, one has to be aware of the multiple contexts of that fail to find the valuable experience. To fail gloriously is to use the privileges that you have, as you are able, to make it safe for others to fail.” - Shawn Graham, *Failing Gloriously*

## Reporting the results of a statistical test

When reporting the results of a statistical test, be sure to include the following information at a minimum *within the context of the hypothesis*:

## Reporting the results of a statistical test

```
Welch Two Sample t-test
data: body_mass_g by species
t = -20.628, df = 170.4, p-value < 2.2e-16
alternative hypothesis: true difference in means between group Chinstrap and group Gentoo is not equal to 0
95 percent confidence interval:
-1471.440 -1214.416
sample estimates:
mean in group Chinstrap mean in group Gentoo
3733.088 5076.016
```

## Reporting the results of a statistical test

“I used Welch’s two-sample t-test of the body masses for Gentoo and Chinstrap penguins, and rejected the null hypothesis that there is no difference in mean body mass between these two groups (*t*=-20.62, *df*=170.4, *p*<2.2e-16).”

## Bitmap vs Vector

Wilke, C. 2019. *Fundamentals of Data Visualization*

## Bitmap vs Vector

Wilke, C. 2019. *Fundamentals of Data Visualization*

## Bitmap vs Vector

**Bitmap**

Sharpness depends on resolution and size

Consistent appearance across platforms

Best for complex images (photos, large numbers of elements)

**Vector**

Sharpness is scale-independent

Can look differently using different programs

Best for simple images (line drawings, simple graphs)

## Next week

Tuesday: Final lecture

Wednesday: Final final project development session

Thursday: __SUBMIT POSTERS BY NOON__, present at 4:30 PM